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1)      Must design for 2 times the glazing resistance now.   Previous 2007 UFC 4-010-01 requirements allowed for frame design for the static 3 sec load and the connections for 2 x the 3 sec load.

2)      Most Manufactures systems have been tested to previous 2007 UFC stand-off distances.   The 2012 UFC allows for stand-off distances much less which can create very large blast loads that systems have not been tested for – so check this out before selecting the systems as engineering, fabrication and installation cost may be greatly affected.

Stewart Jeske, P.E. expert in glazing system design calculations

Stewart Jeske, P.E.

       CALL 816-734-8345  for a FREE Consultation.

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Two-sided Structural Glazing is popular in skylight design due to its water infiltration performance.  In this construction type, the two sloping edges of the glass unit are supported by the rafters and retained by glazing caps.  The two horizontal edges are secured to the purlins using a structural silicone joint, typically applied from the exterior.  This flush purlin detail minimizes water and dirt retention on the skylight.  The exterior joint is typically thought of as just a weather seal.  However, these edges must also be structurally retained to the purlins.

Per the GANA Glazing Manual, 50th Anniversary Edition, insulated glass units must be structurally retained on all four sides. Ideally, the horizontal edges would have two sealant joints.  The weather seal would be on the edge of the unit, and the structural joint would be at the base, connecting the inboard light to the purlin.

In some cases, it’s possible to use a single joint as both the weather seal, and the structural joint.  However, this option offers many challenges.  The joint must be ¼” deep minimum, it must remain at a depth to width ratio of one to one, and it must support the glass unit under wind uplift pressure.  Depending on the situation, this joint may become unreasonably large to support the load.  Other challenges with this setup include issues with the load path.  Large joints have the possibility of coming in contact with the insulated unit’s edge seal, this leads to compatibility issues between sealants.  Also, as the load must travel from the IG unit to the purlin, there must be a flush glaze cap and retainer assembly fastened to the purlin for the sealant to adhere to.

Designers should be conscience of this topic in the design of their skylight.  If you have any questions about your skylight design, please give us a call.

Matt Gorny, E.I.

JEI Structural Engineering Glazing Systems

Matt Gorny

Matt Gorny serves clients at JEI Structural Engineering, a Kansas City, Missouri based company focused on providing professional engineering P.E. calculations and consulting in the United States.




JEI structural - Contact Info GraphicIf you’re a glazing contractor or a building envelop contractor; an estimator or project manager, you’ve probably tried to size your storefront and curtain wall members off of a wind design pressure.

The wind design criteria are usually given on the contract structural drawings.   Sometimes design wind pressures for components and cladding are given as well.  However, the changes with the 2012 IBC have created much confusion regarding the actual design pressures to be used.

Many times the components and cladding pressures listed on the structural drawings are given in terms of “Ultimate strength design”, which is not used in any of the wind load charts given by manufactures.   Using these pressures will ultimately lead to overly conservative design.

Designers need to be able to calculate the allowable strength design loads from the information given off of the structural drawings.

If you have a question about what is on a structural drawing, give us a call.

Stewart Jeske

Stewart Jeske, P.E. expert in glazing system design calculations

Stewart Jeske, P.E.

UFC 2012 criteria now requires the inner glass doors and side lights for inside elevations of vestibules to be blast resistant.

We keep an eye out early on to reduce headaches on the back end.

Seems to be a large gap between what architects require to accommodate vertical movement of the building system, interfacing with glazed systems and what the manufacture provides to accommodate for those movements.
 Recently, we posted the question to LinkedIn and were pleasantly surprised by the response.

 Stewart Jeske, P.E. expert in glazing system design calculations Stewart Jeske, P.E.

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The gap between Architects and Manufactures in Vertical Movement?

Carrie JeskeJEI Structural Engineering – Glazing Design Calcs

Seems to be a large gap between what architects require to accommodate vertical movement of the building system, interfacing with glazed systems and what the manufacture provides to accommodate for those movements. Any answers?


Many senior consultant architects they know nothings about the glazing and aluminum systems , So we suggest to be the specialist consultant for glazing and aluminum works in the area.   Chuck Knickerbocker Curtain Wall Manager at Technical Glass Products

Define vertical movement: Are we talking about thermal, or building frame movements (including column foreshortening, concrete shrinkage, and drift, either from wind or seismic)? Or all of the above? The more sophisticated designs / manufacturers are often left to educate the architect through the shop drawing process. Certainly, if / when the specs lay out all these performance requirements, the framing has to address them. The specs are often the first clue that the architects understand the design issues. Their details ought to reflect those constraints, and how they envision the curtain wall system being able to absorb or work within those parameters. If the drawings and specs don’t address all of those issues, then let the c/wall provider beware – or “caveat emptor” in reverse: The architect probably doesn’t have a clue as to what’s coming.

Richard Araw, Façade Design Supervisor at ALT Cladding Inc.

Commonly, the vertical movement are accommodated by the STACK JOINT – ranging from 25mm to 45mm. But most architects prefer 25mm to 30mm. You do not want to see thick black line across their building. Or , if thick line is necessary, this can be hidden by an aluminum capture instead of the trim on the glass.

And that is where the Curtain wall consultant and curtain wall manufacturer comes in. We need to educate the architects how important vertical movement to the façade.

Stewart Jeske President at JEI Structural Engineering

On virtually all of the small and medium jobs it is a major issue. A general CW or storefront manufacturer is selected by the glazing contractor after receiving quotes. The architect has specified that the system must accommodate the building structural movement. The building structural engineer has designed perimeter/ spandrel beams for L/360 LL (typically between 1/2″ to 3/4″ vertical movement). So, for instance, if it is a head joint, thermal movement (say 1/4″) and the vertical live load (say 3/4″) adds up to a joint required at the head of 2″ (for sealant properly designed). Its ridiculous. The manufacturer’s don’t design standard anchors or receptors for this type of movement.

The breakdown is on the part of the building code – We need something standardized that requires the structural engineer designing the buildings to design for something reasonable that the manufacturer’s can accommodate – Say 1/4″ vertical LL movement at the perimeter beams. Then, everyone would be on the same page.

Chuck Knickerbocker Curtain Wall Manager at Technical Glass Products


if they did a masonry wall instead of curtain wall, wouldn’t there also be a “thick black line across their building” for the very same reason? The floor carrying the dead load deflects, the exterior skin has to accommodate the deflection somehow and / or somewhere, right? Granted the size of the joint may vary, but that’s often (or should be) driven by the movement capacity of the sealant. In unitized walls, there’s a little more forgiveness, in that the gaskets can compress, and the joints can often be smaller, not having to account for sealant capacity to take movement.

Peter Karsai Associate Director at AECOM

This is a complex issue, and is probably one of the area’s most at risk of poor performance, dispute, and litigation. It is not an issue that can be addressed by a simple “rule of thumb” approach. Coordination between cladding and structure needs to address 3 key aspects:

1) Location of any movement joints in the superstructure (usually vertical joints in long buildings). Cladding needs to mirror a joint over the building joints (common sense, but I’ve often seen cladding installed without joint, always with disastrous results).

2) Deflection of structure at cladding fixing points at time of installation (most cladding is installed level, most structures are not level, cladding brackets need to make up the mis-match).

3) Deflection of the structure after the cladding has been installed (live load deflections, wind load/sway, and creep/settlement movements).

After this, the cladding contractor still has to accommodate his fabrication and erection tolerances.

So, quite complex, and it gets worse if the structure has long spans or cantilevers. Many projects (large and small) have tripped on this issue.

This is not something that can safely be covered by the architect’s specification. It is also beyond the understanding of the structural engineer (structural people and cladding people speak a different “language”, and need an middle-man to help them understand each other).   It really needs a specialist cladding consultant to sort it all out, either during the design stage (for a small fee), or during the dispute/rectification/litigation stage (for a very BIG fee). From an industry perspective, the first approach is obviously better.

David Altenhofen East Coast Director at The Facade Group

Good architects figure this out with their structural engineers all of the time. A good consultants can also help but is far from essential on every job. Good structural engineers will frequently bring up the topic just from their own experience.

It is not that big of a deal to ask the structural engineer to limit live load deflection to 1/4″ at the spandrel. On projects with masonry veneers the beams supporting the veneer is frequently designed for L/600 or less and maximum 3/16″ live load deflection (half of a typical joint width). On large buildings the live load can be a small amount of the total load, so perimeter beams might only have to get a bit bigger. That L/360 criteria is usually for total load. Sometimes we have introduced extra columns on the perimeter to keep live load deflection down. Sometimes we introduce an extra beam or HSS at the window head to carry only the dead load of the wall and then there is no live load deflection at the head at all. Sometime the spandrel panel is designed to act like a truss and that reduces the deflection. I have worked with many architects over the years who were aware of how to do this coordination.

Peter Karsai Associate Director at AECOM

20 years ago (when I was a structural engineer) I would have agreed. Life has become much more complex since then, with a multitude of different cladding systems, innovative structural systems, and the desire to constantly push things to the limit. As a result, today we often need a 3-way dialogue (architect/structural engineer/cladding contractor), and a cladding consultant is well placed to facilitate that conversation.   Lastly, if the status quo was satisfactory, then this discussion thread wouldn’t be taking place :-)

Bruce Keeler, PE Principal at Drafting & Engineering

Well stated Stewart. We run up against this issue day in and day out. I don’t know the answer, but it does take multiple conversations during the shop drawing and architectural review process, along with some RFI’s to get everyone comfortable with the specific requirements on any given project, large or small.

Stewart Jeske President at JEI Structural Engineering

Agree, Agree and Agree. Peter, you point out that there is definitely a need for the cladding consultant in the middle. I think this is essential also, to help bring the limitations of the manufactured systems in to the reality of the design. I think this will be needed well into the future. David, I agree with you too. If only there were more projects where the Architect would do this with the Structural Engineer – Too many of them do not.

Again, I’m hammering on the Building Code. This is the central area where information and restriction can be communicated. Limitations for spandrel deflections at curtain walls and glazing systems need to be small to work with current off the self manufactured glazing systems.

Fluelenne Duenas Structural Engineer at Vistawall International/ Oldcastle Building Envelope

I agree with you Peter, a curtain wall consultant would resolve these issues before commencing the cladding design and construction phase. But before agreeing with everything the cladding consultant’s figure, a discussion between consultant, manufacturer, Architect and main contractors Structural Engineers should still take place. They need to resolve the floor to floor design vertical movement. The most common mistake happen during the design stage is catering the maximum vertical movement the cladding consultant issued. This is not correct. Intermediate floors should only be design to differential floor slab/beam movement. Its floor having vertical movement depending on live load. All parties must agree on a common figure, rather than designing the frames/systems to huge movement which in reality not needed at all.

Carrie Jeske JEI Structural Engineering – Glazing Design Calculations

Discussions on the front end of the design process between all parties are rare. It’s not till after a project is awarded to a glazing contractor that the problem is found, forcing everyone into scramble mode.

Our goal is to save glazing contractors money and add value to manufactures designs. It’s conversations like these, with people like each of us, that have to lead the way to better communication and higher quality outcomes. Good leadership requires making tough decisions early on for the good of everyone. Let’s start in our own circle of influence and move out from there.


To jump into this conversation, join the LinkedIn tread.

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The Future of Glass Series

Our Services

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Location: Westfield Shopping Centre, Australia.  We found this great video on YouTube and wanted to share it in our Future of Class category.   Technology is moving so fast.   The future holds a vast array of changes to our everyday lives using new composites and materials.  JEI Structural Engineering is committed to being a key player in the glazing industry future. 

Application: Switchable Glass Privacy Glass.

Switchglass Privacy Glass is a laminated glass panel composed of polymer dispersed liquid crystal film (PDLC). By applying a small electrical current, users can change its state from opaque to transparent, and vice versa. As you can see on the Demo video various Switchglass Privacy Glass can be joined together forming one large panel controlled by a single switch, ultimately creating a privacy glass wall.


What’s the difference between PDLC and Electrochromic Glass?

Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Glass (known as switchable glass) functions by the application of an electrical current that aligns the randomly scattered crystals within the laminated film to create transparency. Electrochromic Glass has a thin transparent coating on the protected inside glass surface which becomes increasingly dark grey tinted with the application of a low voltage electric current, but it does not prevent transparency as does PDLC Switchable glass. They can be combined.


For more cool videos, see our YOUTUBE channel Future of Glass playlist.


I’m hearing that the GB Engineering board is raising this issue about the exterior wall aluminum composite panel.     There are some online organizations that seem to confuse the matter more than clarify it.   Recently, I posted the question on social networks and got some great information to add clarity.

The group got heated with many people expressing opinions and others pitching products.   To join in the conversation, see our post on LinkedIn. 

Here’s the discussion as of Oct 22, 2013.

Carrie Jeske asked, “Are problems with Chinese Aluminum Composite Panels? 

I’m trying to read an article that comes up in Google stating, “This issue to the exterior wall aluminum composite panel (GB Engineering board)”. Is the a legitimate resource for information?

Paul Grime President at Panel Resource Group, Inc. replied:

The key thing you need to use to determine if an ACM/ACP company, Chinese or otherwise, is to make sure that they have done all the testing required for the location you will be using the materials. Many claim that they meet or have certain products that compete with the market leaders, but when you ask for test results you get their testing not an independent certified test. The industry as a whole needs to develop a specification that all manufactures should comply to that lists Al. grade and temper, peel strength, coating standards, core material standards and panel performance standards such as flexural strength and wind loading.

I have been in the industry for over 30 yrs. and have only seen product brand listings in the specifications and this does not really cover the true aspects of the product performance. The architects need to start writing performance specifications vs. brand specifications if they want to get the best quality and performing products for their projects. Unlike

Carrie Jeske JEI Structural Engineering – Glazing Design Calcs said:

Paul, these are great comments. Thank you.

We’ve been talking a lot internally about how to help educate architects so things run more smoothly in the field with a higher quality outcome. It’s just a matter of time and persistence. Delete

Subrat Das Vice President ( Sales & Marketing) at ALEX PANELS India Pvt Ltd

I completely endorse this requirements.

Grason Cook National Sales Manager

ICC AC-25 is a battery of tests for ACM that has been recommended by the industry. Per the comments above, I would not recommend using any panel that hasn’t had these qualities verified by an independent testing facility. Also, ask yourself “If there is an issue with my panel how easy would it be to issue a claim with the manufacturer and would I be able to take legal action if it got to that point?” I see companies from all over trying to sell into the US market, but thankfully the ACM fabricators (most of them) have been responsible enough not to use a product that does not meet this criteria. Is it really worth saving $.10/sqft on a $45/sqft installation to have all of this additional liability?

Also, it is getting harder to track Chinese panels as companies are brokering their products thru other countries to try and confuse the end user.

Peter Williams MD, Owner at Credence Associated Consultants (Thailand) Co Ltd. / Seeking Employment.

Grason, You got that absolutely right, even down to buying Extruded anodizing quality mill finish aluminum profiles from China at these low “Competitive prices” the anodizing color comes out in different shades, – Widows , frames , doors , all look like chess boards, there’s a high scrapage if you try and match the color shades per unit, Alloy compositions swing so much from batch to batch coming out of China, and billet log homogenizing times and temp’s vary so much.

The rigmarole of putting a claim in for NC metal is just unbelievable, Competitive price = False economy

Peter Williams MD, Owner at Credence Associated Consultants (Thailand) Co Ltd. / Seeking Employment.

Grason, You got that absolutely right, even down to buying Extruded anodizing quality mill finish aluminum profiles from China at these low “Competitive prices” the anodizing colour comes out in different shades, – Widows , frames , doors , all look like chess boards, there’s a high scrapage if you try and match the colour shades per unit, Alloy compositions swing so much from batch to batch coming out of China, and billet log homogenizing times and temp’s vary so much.

The rigmarole of putting a claim in for NC metal is just unbelievable, Competitive price = False economy

Sunil. Laxman. Ahire Plant Manager at Qatar National Aluminum Panel Co. (Q-NAP)

All said and accepted. It still remains a Chinese dominated territory, and I feel that right quality can be procured / tailored at china with a proper knowledge and pursuance.

Anderson Shi export manager at Jiangsu New Mster Technology Co., Ltd

Dear sirs, We have full certificate for our A2 grade aluminum composite panel, welcome to visit our factory for testing our panels

Peter Williams MD, Owner at Credence Associated Consultants (Thailand) Co Ltd. / Seeking Employment.

Not many project managers would agree with that sentiment, an installation schedule after all does not consider pursuance of quality , it should be in place and UP FRONT.


We have to be honest with ourselves regarding manufacturing practices, this applies to purchaser too and followed by end users.Now i want a price tag as purchaser and seller gives it after compromising on quality of product without intimating . we have to seek proper and candid interaction at apex level to sort out these kinks.

ASHOK KUMAR SURYAWANSHI AGM at Aludecor Lamination Pvt. Ltd.

ASHOK KUMAR SURYAWANSHI  AGM R&D  ALUDECOR LAMINATION PVT LTD  Top most brand of A2 grade aluminum composite panel manufacture in india .also coated aluminum coil manufacture,

ASHOK KUMAR SURYAWANSHI AGM at Aludecor Lamination Pvt. Ltd.

all solution of acp problem coming while process and other then process contact me

Peter Williams  MD, Owner at Credence Associated Consultants (Thailand) Co Ltd. / Seeking Employment.

This has gone off track .

Paul Grime President at Panel Resource Group, Inc.

Couldn’t agree more with you Peter. This needs to focus on the problems Globally with sub-standard products getting into the market and setting International standards that all manufacturers must abide by. There is a reason that many of the companies offer a CHEEPER product, they do not use quality materials when producing it or follow any standards.

James Lee Area Manager at Guangdong Gaoli Aluminum Industry Co.,Ltd.

Hi,plz contact with me. We have sent samples to USA, UK, Singapore and Australia for test. Now we are suppliers of ACM for DUBAI METRO STATION, New Doha International Airport, and so on. Hope we can cooperate with each other.

Grason Cook National Sales Manager

Why I dislike joining any boards on LinkedIn? Because it becomes a sales pitch by people from I don’t know where versus a conversation… Testing in the US for a product like this will set you back over $100k plus annual inspection costs. It did ours. I don’t think many companies would make that investment for a supplier of theirs. It must be done by the supplier/manufacturer so the idea of sending samples for testing makes little sense in the US market.

Carrie Jeske JEI Structural Engineering – Glazing Design Calcs

I hear you Grason. The public domain is a two edge sword. I think there was some valuable info in this thread and individuals don’t have any moderation tools so we have to pick the plums where we can. Thanks for your insights. Our world is getting smaller and smaller and I think social networks can help us all make better purchasing decisions. Poor quality can no longer hide in the local newspaper.

Stay strong…

Peter Williams MD, Owner at Credence Associated Consultants (Thailand) Co Ltd. / Seeking Employment.

It’s all about levels of understanding, even these sales guys don’t know enough about their product to carry an argument on quality, as a said earlier, ” this board has gone way off track ”

Hessam Moosavi Managing director at Estaque Modern Constructions Co.

Dear friends,  Generally speaking, Chinese acm/acp use cheap raw materials. You better know composite production price depends more on the material than human resources. The raw material including aluminum, PE and glue are used in the same amounts in acm production. So the difference in price is because of difference in quality and producer factory of the raw material. It is obvious that an alloy 5005 has not the same price as alloy 3103. And a BASF bonding roll has not the same quality as zing bla bla co. So in general Chinese productions which use local produced raw material have lower quality. For exterior facades, as UV and acid rains and temperature change affect the façade, acp quality matters. For testing acps you need a well equipped laboratory which is not accessible in many countries. So you have to use test results of the countries with the same climate and natural conditions. For Example for UAE you can use Astm codes which are used in Nevada state. Now when you get a new brand acp from china, India, uae or other same countries and you want to use it in a 5000 sqm project, it does not make sence to send it to lab because of the time and price. Another thing affects the price of acp and that is transportation and taxes. I think it is better to use acm/acps which are priduced in china under license of a known company, let’s say Alucobond, Reynobond or Alpolic. They have better quality which is certified from a European or American lab and the producer has good history in this industry. Some of Chinese companies use fake characteristics for their product like nano painted, super Nano painted, super super nano pvdf and things like that.  All at all, I think for buildings with high importance like airports, hospitals and etc it is better to use an Europe/American made acp and for the others it depends on the economic prospects and conditions.

Peter Williams MD, Owner at Credence Associated Consultants (Thailand) Co Ltd. / Seeking Employment.

I concur 100% with Hessam, Especially when you know you have companies like Mitsubishi right there behind certain acp brands, it installs confidence in the end result,

For more comments on this topic, connect with me on LinkedIn.


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General Services Administration, Public Buildings Service (PBS), Acquisition  Management (7PQC), 819 Taylor St. Room 12B01 Fort Worth  TX 76102

Z — Social Security Administration 1st Floor Office Renovations, Federal  Office Building, Little Rock, AR  7PS-13-0919  062413  stephan Harris, Contract  Specialist, Phone 8179780106, Email   Synopsis – This  Presolicitation Notice is issued solely for informational,  market research,  and planning purposes only. This is not a request for offers or proposals.  This notice does not represent a commitment by the Government to issue a  solicitation or award a contract.
The General Services Administration  (GSA) Greater Southwest Region is seeking sources for Construction Services  to perform the renovations to the Social Security Administration (SSA) First  Floor Offices, located in the Federal Office Building, 700 W. Capital Ave,  Little Rock, AR. Work to include selective demolition of existing walls,  doors, interior windows, miscellaneous interior finishes; lay-in ceilings,  electrical and HVAC. Work shall also include the installation of new partition  walls, ceilings, interior doors,  interview windows, floor finishes, electrical,  data and HVAC work. The project will require work to be performed within  an occupied Federal Office Building while minimizing disruptions to the operations  of the existing facility.
The estimated cost range for all work is between $500, 000.00 and $1,000,000.00.   This Solicitation is Set Aside for Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small  Businesses (SDVOSB)   in accordance with FAR Part 19. Work to be performed  under the contemplated contract will be within the North American Industry  Classification System (NAICS) Code 236220 with a size standard of $35.5 Million.  All offerors are advised that this project may be revised or canceled at  any time during the, solicitation, selection, evaluation, negotiation, and  final award. The Request for Proposal (RFP) will be issued electronically  on or about  June 25, 2013  on the Internet at:
To be eligible for contract award responding firms must be registered in  the System for Award Management (SAM) and the Department of Labor’s VETS-100  Database. Information concerning SAM requirements may be viewed via internet  at Information concerning VETS-100 requirements may  be viewed via the internet at

Set-Aside: Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business  Place of Performance:  700 W. Capital Ave Little Rock, AR  72201  US  URL:

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